July 4, 1776 is, of course, the birth date of the United States. Fifty years later, both John Adams and Thomas Jefferson died on July 4, 1826 to be followed by James Monroe on July 4, 1831. Jefferson authored the Declaration of Independence, living in Graff House in Philadelphia while writing it. Graff House was once the home of Rebecca Gratz who some believe was the model for Scott's Rebecca in "Ivanhoe". The connection runs through Scott's friend and fellow author Washington Irving. Gratz herself appreciated Scott's Rebecca saying "I felt a little extra pleasure from Rebecca's being a Hebrew maiden. It is worthy of Scott in a period when persecution has re-commenced in Europe to hold up a picture of the superstition and cruelty in which it originated."